An operation where the cervical spine is reached through a small incision in the front of your neck. After the soft tissues of the neck are separated, the intervertebral disc and bone spurs are removed.
An operation performed on the upper spine to relieve pressure on one or more nerve roots, or on the spinal cord. The term is derived from the words anterior (front), cervical (neck), and fusion (joining the vertebrae with a bone graft).
Approaching the spine from the front, the intervertebral disc and/or vertebral body is removed and bone graft is inserted.
Inflammation of a joint usually characterized by swelling, pain and restriction of motion.
The fusion of bones across a joint space, thereby limiting or eliminating movement. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of a surgical procedure, such as fusion of the spine.
Bone which is harvested from one location in an individual and placed in another individual (allograft bone) or in a different location in the same individual (autogenous bone).
Space under a ligament in wrist through which the median nerve enters the palm of the hand.
A condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, characterized especially by discomfort and disturbances of sensation in the hand.
The bundle of spinal nerve roots arising from the end of the spinal cord and filling the lower part of the spinal canal (from approximately the thoraco-lumbar junction down).
Sufficient pressure on the nerves in the low back to produce multiple nerve root irritation and commonly loss of bowel and bladder control.
The lower part of the brain which is beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum and regulates unconscious coordination of movement.
Surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of higher nervous activity; called also pallium.
Water-like fluid produced in the brain that circulates and protects the brain and spinal cord, known as CSF.
Spinal fusion involving the seven cervical segments. This may include the base of the skull, the occiput, and the first thoracic spine.
Mechanical process resulting from a tumor, fracture, or herniated disc; the resulting irritation is called radiculitis if there is actual inflammation around the nerve. Pain from this type of disorder is called radicular pain.
A diagnostic imaging technique in which a computer reads x-rays to create a three-dimensional map of soft tissue or bone.
A diagnostic imaging technique in which a computer reads x-rays to create a three-dimensional map of soft tissue or bone.
In relation to the spine this procedure is carried out to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
A decompression done by removing the lamina and spinous process.
The progressive deterioration of tissue.
Gradual or rapid deterioration of the chemical composition and physical properties of the disc space.
Refers to the distribution of sensory nerves near the skin that are responsible for pain, tingling, and other sensations (or lack of).
The intervertebral disc - cartilaginous cushion found between the vertebrae of the spinal column. It may bulge beyond the vertebral body and compress the nearby nerve root, causing pain. The terms “slipped disc,” “ruptured disc,” and “herniated disc” are often used interchangeably even though there are subtle differences.
The loss of the structural and functional integrity of the disc.
Surgical removal of part or all of an intervertebral disc material placing pressure on neural elements.
The graphic record, usually radiographic, of discography.
Radiographic demonstration of intervertebral disc by injection of contrast media into the nucleus of the pulposus.
An excessive accumulation of fluid generally in extracellular.
A method of recording the electrical currents generated in a muscle during its contraction.
Immediately outside the dura mater. Same as extradural.
A flat, plate-like surface that acts as part of a joint; as seen in the vertebrae of the spine and in the subtalar joint of the ankle. Each vertebra has two superior and two inferior facets.
A degenerative disease affecting the facet joint.
A natural opening or passage in bone. An opening allowing for the egress of spinal nerve roots from between two vertebrae.
Surgical opening or enlargement of the bony opening traversed by a nerve root as it leaves the spinal canal. A procedure carried out alone or in conjunction with disc surgery.
A disruption of the normal continuity of bone.
Fracture of a bone that is also dislocated from its normal position in a joint.
Union or healing of bone (see Arthrodesis).
A blood clot.
Paralysis of one side of the body.
Bleeding due to the escape of blood from a blood vessel.
Extrusion of part of the nucleus pulposus material through a defect in the annulus fibrosis.
Extrusion of the central portion of an intervertebral disc through the outer cartilaginous ring. The material can compress the spinal cord or nerves in or exiting the spinal canal.
Formation of a protrusion.
The bone of the arm, articulating with the scapula above and the radius and ulna below.
A part of the pelvic bone that is above the hip joint and from which autogenous bone grafts are frequently obtained.
The large, prominent portion of the pelvic bone at the belt line of the body.INSTRUMENTATION
The use of instruments such as metal screws or braces during a surgical procedure to support bone as it heals.
Between the bodies of two adjacent vertebrae.
The immobilization of bone fragments or joints with implants in order to promote healing or fusion.
Formation of a false joint between two spinous processes.
An abnormal increase in the normal kyphotic curvature of the thoracic spine. Round shoulder deformity, humpback, dorsal kyphotic curvature; may refer to any forward-bending area or deformity of the spine.
The flattened or arched part of the vertebral arch, forming the roof of the spinal canal. The posterior part of the spinal ring that covers the spinal cord or nerves.
Excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae. Removal of the lamina, the bony element covering the posterior portion of the spinal canal.
An opening made in a lamina. Formation of a hole in the lamina without disrupting the continuity of the entire lamina to approach the intervertebral disc or neural structures.
A band of flexible, fibrous connective tissue that is attached at the end of a bone near a joint. The main function of a ligament is to attach bones to one another, to provide stability of a joint, and to prevent or limit some joint motion.
Curvature of the spine with the convexity forward. Not a disease state, but the normal anterior concavity of the neck or low back.
The lower part of the spine between the thoracic region and the sacrum. The lumbar spine consists of five vertebrae. The five moveable spinal segments of the lower back and largest of the spinal segments.
An operation on the lumbar spine performed using a surgical microscope and microsurgical techniques.
Diagnostic test that produces three-dimensional images of body structures using powerful magnets and computer technology rather than x-rays.
The nerve formed from the brachial plexus that supplies muscles in the anterior forearm and thumb, as well as, sensation of the hand. It may be compressed or trapped at the wrist in carpal tunnel syndrome.
The lower portion of the brain stem.
The three membranes covering the spinal cord and brain termed dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.
An x-ray of the spinal canal following injection of a contrast material into the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid spaces.
Pain caused by damage to nerve tissue. It is often felt as a burning or stabbing pain. One example of neuropathic pain is a “pinched nerve.”
A whitish cordlike structure composed of one or more bundles of myelinated or unmyelinated fibers, or more often mixtures of both coursing outside of the central nervous system, together with connective tissue within the fascicle and around the neurolemma of individual fibers.
The back part of the head. The base of the skull.
Arthritis characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, either primary or secondary to trauma or other conditions, which becomes soft, frayed, and thinned with eburnation of subchondral bone and outgrowths of marginal osteophytes.
Inflammation of bone due to infection, which may be localized or generalized.
Paralysis of the lower part of the body including the legs.
The middle portion of each cerebral hemisphere.
The posterior continuation of the spinal arch from the pedicle; the superior and inferior facets are connected to each other by the pars interarticulars.
The part of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra. It connects the lamina with the vertebral body. The first portion of the posterior spine arising from the vertebral body.
Used for laminectomies and spinal fusions at any level; Hibbs, Wagoner.
Spinal fusion done from the back, using the lamina, facets, and spinous processes of the neck.
Spinal fusion done from the back using the lamina, the facets, and spinous processes of the lower back.
A fusion of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions primarily fusing the lamina and sometimes the facet joints, using iliac or other bone graft.
Paralysis of all four limbs.
Disease of the nerve roots in or near the spinal canal as a result of direct pressure from a disc, or inflammation of the nerve roots due to disc or spinal joint disease.
An involuntary reaction in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the nervous centers in the brain or spinal cord.
Generalized inflammatory joint disease.
In spinal applications, a slender, metal implant which is used to immobilize and align the spine.
Five fused segments of the lower spine, below the end of the spinal column, that connect to the pelvis and have four foramina on each side.
The sacrum consists of five vertebrae, which have fused together to form a single bone mass called the sacrum. The sacrum and pelvis (ileum) connect through the sacroiliac joints. The bottom of the spine, the coccygeal region, consists of four vertebrae, which, like the sacrum, have all fused together to form the coccyx or tailbone.
A large triangular flattened bone lying over the ribs, posteriorly on either side.
A lay term indicating pain along the course of a sciatic nerve, especially noted in the back of the thigh and below the knee. Pain radiating down the sciatic nerve into the posterior thigh and leg; can be caused by irritation of a nerve anywhere from the back to the thigh.
A state of infection of tissue due to disease-producing bacteria or toxins.
The bony channel that is formed by the intervertebral foramen of the vertebrae and in which contains the spinal cord and nerve roots. The space between the vertebral body anteriorly and the lamina and spinal process posteriorly.
The longitudinal cord of nerve tissue that is enclosed in the spinal canal. It serves not only as a pathway for nervous impulses to and from the brain, but as a center for carrying out and coordinating many reflex actions independently of the brain.
Operative method of strengthening and limiting motion of the spinal column. Can be performed with a variety of metal instruments and bone grafts, or bone grafts alone.
General term denoting narrowing of the spinal canal in the lumbar area leading to nerve root compromise; term often used for developmental abnormality that leaves a narrow, bony canal.
The portion of the vertebrae that protrudes posteriorly from the spinal column. The spinous processes create the “bumps” felt on the midline of the back. The most posterior extension of the spine arising from the laminae.
Inflammation of vertebrae, including types such as ankylosing, rheumatoid, traumatic, spondylitis deformans, Kümmell, and Marie-Strümpell d.
A defect in the construct of bone between the superior and inferior facets with varying degrees of displacement so the vertebra with the defect and the spine above that vertebra are displaced forward in relationship to the vertebrae below. It is usually due to a developmental defect or the result of a fracture.
Displacement of one vertebrae over another with fracture of a posterior portion of the vertebra. A defect in the neural arch between the superior and inferior facets of vertebrae without separation at the defect and therefore no displacement of the vertebrae. It may be unilateral or bilateral and is usually due to a developmental defect but may be secondary to a fracture.
Ankylosis of the vertebra; often applied nonspecifically to any lesion of the spine of a degenerative nature. Bony replacement of ligaments around the disc spaces of the spine, associated with decreased mobility and eventual fusion; marginal osteophyte.
Surgical immobilization or ankylosis by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft in cases of tuberculosis of the spine; spondylodesis, Albee procedure.
An injury to a ligament when the joint is carried through a range of motion greater than normal, but without dislocation or fracture.
The flexible bone column extending from the base of the skull to the tailbone. It is made up of 33 bones, known as vertebrae. The first 24 vertebrae are separated by discs known as intervertebral discs, and bound together by ligaments and muscles. Five vertebrae are fused together to form the sacrum and 4 vertebrae are fused together to form the coccyx. The spine is also referred to as the vertebral column, spinal column, or backbone.
Reduction in the diameter of the spinal canal due to new bone formation which may result in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
The breast bone; further divided into three segments. manubrium: upper portion, proximal end; sternum: main portion; xiphoid: the dagger-like tip of the sternum, distal end.
To injure by overuse or improper use.
Blood in, or bleeding into, the space under the arachnoid membrane, most commonly from trauma or from rupture of an aneurysm.
A collection of blood (clot) trapped under the dura matter, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Complex of symptoms often seen in cervical sprain conditions. Symptoms include clicking in the jaw on opening and closing the mouth, soreness in the jaw, headaches, buzzing sounds, changes in hearing, stiffness in the neck and shoulders, dizziness, and swallowing disorders.
The fibrous band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It is mainly composed of collagen.
Inflammation of a tendon.
The chest level region of the spine that is located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. It consists of 12 vertebrae which serve as attachment points for ribs.
A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them.
An operation where the lumbar spine is approached through an incision in the back. A portion of bone and disc are removed from the spine and replaced with an implant that is inserted into the disc space.
Bony process arising from midportion of the spinal ring just posterior to the pedicle and pars interarticulars.
The medial and the larger of the two bones of the forearm.
The use of high-frequency sound to create images of internal body structures.
The cavities or chambers within the brain which contain the cerebrospinal fluid. There are two lateral ventricles and midline third and fourth ventricles.
One of the 33 bones of the spinal column. A cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebra has a cylindrically-shaped bony anteriorly and a neural arch posteriorly (composed primarily of the laminae and pedicles as well as the other structures in the posterior aspect of the vertebra) that protects the spinal cord. The plural of vertebra is vertebrae.
From a lateral view, it is the main rectangular portion of the spine; from an overview, oval.
The ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a highly evacuated tube, resulting from the excitation of the inner orbital electrons by the bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode. A radiograph.